This is probably the cause of her arrhythmias. Infants have higher surface-to-volume ratios than do adults, and the body's temperature-regulating mechanisms are not fully functional at birth. What hormones are used to turn amino acids into proteins? Diet and vitamin supplementation are the only known sources of vitamin A. As a result, infants must expend more energy to maintain body temperature, and they get cold more easily than do healthy adults. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small inte… The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. It appears that Jill is suffering from ketoaci- dosis as a consequence of her anorexia. The two classes of vitamins are fat-soluble and water-soluble. Lipoproteins are lipid-protein complexes that contain large insoluble glycerides and cholesterol, with a superficial coating of phospholipids and proteins. Postabsorptive State: Resting after absorption of meal. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well. What hormone is used to turn glucose into fat? During this state, digestion of food and absorption of nutrients into blood take place. In LIPOLYSIS, lipids are broken down into what? During this state, the body must rely initially on stored glycogen. c. pancreas. Explain the processes that regulate glucose levels during the absorptive and postabsorptive states; Explain how metabolism is essential to maintaining body temperature (thermoregulation) Summarize the importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet; Figure 1. In PROTEIN SYNTHESIS amino acids are turned into what? The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. The different intermediaries account for the difference in ATP yield. During the postabsorptive state A. blood glucose rises. Because she is literally starv- ing herself, her body is metabolizing large amounts of fatty acids and amino acids to provide energy, and in the process is producing large quantities of ketone bodies (normal metabolites from these catabolic processes). A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is _____. to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is __________. D. glucose is stored by glycogenesis. What would you tell him? Explain your answer. Anabolism is the synthesis of new organic molecules from simpler components, and it requires energy. This forms a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. gluconeogenesis is stimulated by decreased levels of. What 4 hormones are used during GLUCONEOGENESIS? D. gluconeogensis is stimulated by. Glucose levels in the blood begin to drop as it is absorbed and used by the cells. a. liver. Each NADH produced by glycolysis in skeletal muscle fibers leads to the production of 2 ATP molecules in the mitochondria, but each NADH produced by glycolysis in cardiac muscle cells leads to the production of 3 ATP molecules. Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body; it includes anabolism and ca- tabolism. A post-absorptive state differs from an absorptive state. Question options: Learning Objective: 27.03.02 Explain when the postabsorptive state occurs, and how nutrient levels are regulated during this time. glucagon epinephrine glucocorticoids gh thyroxine, stimulates breakdown of glycogen into glucose. C. vein. During the absorptive state, the stomach and intestines contain nutrients that are being absorbed by the body. In KETOGENESIS, what is formed from the breakdown of fat? B. arteriole. Accumulated acetyl-CoA is likely to be converted into ketone bodies. How would the BMR of a pregnant woman compare with her own BMR before she became pregnant? In the end result of the absorptive state: What state occurs when plasma glucose concentration is decreased? The five major groups of lipoproteins are chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fatty acids are broken into 2-carbon fragments by beta-oxidation inside mito- chondria. However, an intermediary in the mitochondrial membrane can transfer the electrons from the NADH to a coenzyme within the mitochondria. 17. C. lipids are stored in adipose tissue. Transamination is the transfer of an amino group from one molecule to another, especially from an amino acid to a keto acid. If Justine's diet—which includes very little milk, liver, eggs, fish, leafy green, yellow, and orange vegetables, and fruits—is deficient in vitamin A, what other vitamin deficiencies might be expected? In LIPOLYSIS, what are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids and made into glucose? To which types and functions of cholesterol do these terms refer? Some articles in the popular media refer to "good cholesterol" and "bad cholesterol." What is a lipoprotein? 2. The primary role of the citric acid cycle in ATP production is to transfer electrons from substrates to coenzymes. Liver cells can break down or synthesize most carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. The end result of PA state, the lipids are broken down to form _____________ __________ to make ______________. Given that his family has a history of cardiovascular disease, he wonders if he should modify his lifestyle. absorptive state: The period during digestion when anabolism exceeds catabolism. Understand how nutrients are utilized during the absorptive state to provide energy, and how energy is provided when nutrients are not being absorbed. The process that produces more than 90 percent of the ATP used by our cells is (a) glycolysis, (b) the citric acid cycle, (c) substrate-level phosphorylation, (d) oxidative phosphorylation. What process in the liver increases after you have eaten a high-carbohydrate meal? Catabolism is the breakdown of organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of en-. High levels of HDLs indicate that a considerable amount of cholesterol is being removed from the peripheral tissues and carried to the liver for disposal. All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state except that A) glycogenolysis occurs in the liver. Jill suffers from anorexia nervosa. These nutrients are used to meet the immediate energy needs of the body. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. C) ketone bodies may be formed. What 5 hormones are used during LIPOLYSIS? Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered beneficial to health? During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose begins to decline, triggering the liver to release glu- cose produced through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The buildup of cholesterol in the arteries is linked to cardiovascular disease. Glycerol is converted to pyruvate and enters the citric acid cycle. A diet deficient in pyridoxine (vitamin B6), an important coenzyme in de- aminating and transaminating amino acids in cells, would interfere with the body's ability to metabolize proteins. How are lipids catabolized in the body? The major groups are chylomicrons, which consist of 95 percent triglyceride, are the largest lipoproteins, and carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the blood- stream; very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), which consist of triglyceride, phospholipid, and cholesterol, and transport triglycer- ides to peripheral tissues; intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), which are intermediate in size and composition between VLDLs and LDLs; low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or "bad cholesterol"), which are mostly cholesterol and deliver cholesterol to peripheral tissues; and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or "good choles- terol"), which are equal parts protein and lipid (cholesterol and phospholipids) and transport excess cholesterol to the liver for stor- age or excretion in bile. In skeletal muscle cells, the intermediary transfers the electrons to FAD, whereas cardiac muscle cells use a different intermediary, which transfers the electrons to another NAD. builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state. These electrons provide energy for the production of ATP by the electron transport system. ... what characterized the postabsorptive state. What is the primary role of the citric acid cycle in the production of ATP. Explain how the electron trans- port system is involved in this process. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. In GLYCOGENOLYSIS what breaks down into glucose? Would an athlete in intensive training try to maintain a. 16. In large amounts, this lowers the body's pH. You would encourage Charlie not to change, and keep up the good work. In GLYCOGENOLYSIS gycogen breaks down into what? During the postabsorptive state, _____ stimulate(s) lipid catabolism. Why do you think she is having the arrhythmias? Meanwhile, the postabsorptive state starts after the complete absorption of nutrients. E. protein synthesis is active. Print chapter 25 flashcards and study them anytime, anywhere. During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose begins to decline, triggering the liver to release glu- cose produced through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is _____. During the absorptive state, insulin prevents a large surge in blood glucose after a meal by causing the liver to remove glucose from the hepatic portal circulation. How would a decrease in the level of NAD in the cytosol affect ATP production in mitochondria? Decreased NAD would reduce the amount of pyruvate produced by glycolysis; less pyruvate means that the citric acid cycle could produce less, Beta-oxidation is fatty acid catabolism that produces molecules of acetyl-CoA, Identify the five major groups of lipoproteins. The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (catabolism exceeds anabolism). In GLUCONEOGENESIS, glycerol, amino acids, lactic acids are made into what? in PROTEIN SYNTHESIS what is made into proteins? b. brain. The Postabsorptive State. The citric acid cycle must turn ___________ time(s) to completely me- tabolize the pyruvate produced from one glucose molecule. The 2-carbon compounds then enter the citric acid cycle. One of the ketones formed is acetone, which can be eliminated through the lungs. As a result, body temperature would increase. Other than diet and vitamin supplementation, is there any other available source of vitamin A? state except. The NADH produced by glycolysis cannot enter the mi- tochondria, where the enzymes of the electron transport chain are located. Why are vitamins and minerals essential components of the diet? One afternoon she is rushed to the emergency room because of cardiac arrhythmias. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones. Unlike some other vitamins that can be made by our skin (vitamin D3) or by intestinal bacteria (vitamin K, Biotin [B7], Pantothenic acid [B5]), vitamin A is a true essential vitamin that must be consumed orally. How would a decrease in the amount of bile salts in the bile affect the amount of vitamin A in the body? If both are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in the liver and muscle cells. As the body progresses from the absorptive to the post absorptive state, only ___ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. What hormone is used to turn glucose into glycogen? Energy from the stepwise passage of electrons (from H atoms) along the cytochrome molecules is used to pump hydrogen ions from the matrix into the intermembrane space. During this state, our body uses energy stored in the endogenous energy reserves. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted. Start studying Chapter 25: Absorptive and Postabsorptive States. elevates glucagon levels. Do the absorptive state pathways occur separately or all at once? cortisol. During the absorptive state of metabolism, amino acids. What 2 hormones are used during GLYCOGENOLYSIS? What is oxidative phosphorylation? Key Terms. The electron transport system consists of a sequence of metal ion-containing proteins (metalloproteins) called cytochromes, embedded in the in- ner mitochondrial membrane. The hydrogen ions diffuse back through ATP synthase and generate ATP. The vitamins generally associated with vitamin toxicity are (a) fat-soluble vitamins, (b) water-soluble vitamins. The flactuations of glucose and insulin in human during the course of a day: The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. Her breath smells fruity, and her blood and urine samples contain high levels of ketone bodies. The plasma glucose concentration is maintained surprisingly constant during the fasting, or postabsorptive, state because of the secretion of glucose from the liver. The ketones are also converted into keto acids such as acetic acid. In GLUCONEOGENESIS, glucose is formed from what? there is a substantial reduction in blood glucose concentration compared to the absorptive state. When blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and insulin are high, and glycogenesis is occurring in the liver, the body is in the _____ state. The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is an ___________ process. In mi- tochondria, each NADH yields 3 molecules of ATP, whereas each FADH2 yields just 2 molecules of ATP. The electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen com- bine to produce water as a byproduct. Acetone has a fruity aroma, so her breath would also smell fruity. Glucose is made into __________ during glycogenesis, In GLYCOGENESIS what is made into glycogen. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well. b. brain. Deamination is the removal of an amino group from an amino acid. Start studying Absorptive/Post-Absorptive State. Problems are associated with elevated levels of LDLs, which carry cholesterol to peripheral tissues and make it available for the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels. d. spleen. In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, amino acids enter the cells using what 2 hormones? B) growth hormone. If a cell accumulates more acetyl-CoA than it can metabolize in the citric acid cycle, what products are likely to form? During the postabsorptive state, the digestive tract is empty and energy comes from the breakdown of the body's reserves. Absorptive state occurs when blood glucose concentraion: What 4 hormones are used in absorptive state feedback mechanism: In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, what enters the cells using the hormones insulin and thyroxine? Immediate response, Glucogenesis, Lipogenesis, Protein synthesis. Section: 27.03b Topic: Nutrition and Metabolism 27-Glucagon 62. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are considered ben- eficial to health because they reduce the amount of fat (including cholesterol) in the bloodstream by transporting it to the liver for storage or excretion in the bile. For several hours during and after a meal During the absorptive state, insulin prevents a large surge in blood glucose after a meal by causing the liver to remove glucose from the hepatic portal circulation. Justine's vitamin-deficient diet is likely to lead to deficiencies of all the fat-soluble and water-soluble vita- mins, including D, E, K, all the B vitamins, and vitamin C. In KETOGENESIS ketone acids are formed from the breakdown of what? Through a series of processes, glucose is ultimately released into the bloodstream by the liver in order to maintain normal blood … Consider how the absorptive and post-absorptive patterns of metabolism are controlled by hormones,… Oxidative phosphorylation is the generation of ATP within mi- tochondria, through a process called chemiosmosis that requires coenzymes, ATP synthase, and consumes oxygen. In order to maintain a normal blood glucose level, nutrients that were stored during the absorptive state and now being broken down during the postabsorptive state. The BMR of a pregnant woman would be higher than her own BMR when she is not pregnant, due to both the increased metabolism associated with supporting the fetus and the contribution of fetal metabolism. Explain the processes that regulate glucose levels during the absorptive and postabsorptive states; Explain how metabolism is essential to maintaining body temperature (thermoregulation) Summarize the importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet B) androgens. An absorptive state occurs during the period within four hours of food consumption. ; Kreb’s cycle: The Kreb’s cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide. Why is the liver the focal point for metabolic regulation and control? Why do infants have greater problems with thermoregulation than adults? During the postabsorptive state tissues other than the brain utilize fatty acids for energy, and the liver produces glucose by breaking down glycogen to glucose and converting other substrates to glucose via gluconeogenesis. Postabsorptive state Energy may be provided by mechanisms such as the breakdown of a stored glycogen, oxidation of ketone bodies, and conversion of glycerol into glucose...during which state? Chemoreceptors send nerve impluse to where (4): pancreas adrenal glad pituitary gland peripheral nerves, The pancreas, adrenal glad, pituitary gland and peripheral nerves send hormones to what organs?(3). Part D Metabolism During the Absorptive State During the absorptive state, metabolism adjusts to either provide energy for immediate use or store excess energy to be used later Drag the appropriate items into their respective bins. 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