"[17], As a dissident Liberal running for the presidency, Alessandri attracted support from the more reformist Radicals and Democrats and formed the so-called Liberal Alliance. Portales was killed by traitors in 1837. At the end of his term, Frei had accomplished many noteworthy objectives, but he had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals. On September 11, 1973, the armed forces staged a coup d’état. The second period was characterized by the Spanish attempts to reimpose arbitrary rule during the period known as the Reconquista of 1814–1817 ("Reconquest": the term echoes the Reconquista in which the Christian kingdoms retook Iberia from the Muslims). northwest of the capital, Santiago. Portales was an agnostic who said that he believed in the clergy but not in God. Of course, the very nature of "disappearances" made such investigations very difficult. It's time for that to end' Germán David, Melissa Medina and Antonia Del Almendro in Chile. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, which had the effect of increasing consumer spending and redistributing income downward. [65], Chile achieved global recognition for the successful rescue of 33 trapped miners in 2010. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Cal. Piñera won the elections with 54% of the votes. They returned Alessandri to the presidency that March and enacted his promised reforms by decree. Although Chile's war of independence brought into place a system of representative democracy, the country's political history has not always been smooth. Alessandri soon discovered that his efforts to lead would be blocked by the conservative Congress. This report counted 2,279 cases of "disappearances" which could be proved and registered. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. The same problem arose, several years later, with the Valech Report, released in 2004 and which counted almost 30,000 victims of torture, among testimonies from 35,000 persons. Bernardo O’Higgins ruled Chile as supreme director from 1817 to 1823. By April all three nations are at war. [citation needed] The next year, Carmen Gloria Quintana was burnt alive in what became known as the Caso Quemado ("Burnt Alive case"). Presidents and constitutions rose and fell quickly in the 1820s. Chile, retaliating in February 1879, seizes the port of Antofagasta. In 1970, Salvador Allende, founder of the Chilean Socialist party, was elected as president, winning with only 36 percent of the vote and strong opposition from the political right. In the first year of Allende's term, the short-term economic results of Economics Minister Pedro Vuskovic's expansive monetary policy were unambiguously favorable: 12% industrial growth and an 8.6% increase in GDP, accompanied by major declines in inflation (down from 34.9% to 22.1%) and unemployment (down to 3.8%). The autocratic and conservative republic (1831-1861) was replaced by the liberal republic (1861-1891) during which some political conquests were made, such as proportional representation (1871) and the abolition of the condition of ownership to have the right to vote (1885). The history of Chile dates back 10,000 years when migrating Native Americans first settled along the coast and in the fertile valleys of what is now Chile. Infoplease has everything you need to know about Chile. By adopting a moderately liberal constitution in 1828, Pinto alienated both the federalists and the liberal factions. Liberals triumphed in 1861 with the election of Jose Joaquin Perez as president. Chile developed a good export economy, including the export of fruits and vegetables to the northern hemisphere when they were out of season, and commanded high prices. "By 1968, 20 percent of total U.S. foreign investment was tied up in Latin America...Mining companies had invested $1 billion over the previous fifty years in Chile's copper mining industry – the largest in the world – but they had sent $7.2 billion home. His administration concentrated on the occupation of the territory, especially the Strait of Magellan and the Araucanía. The geographic distance between the two countries made formally maintained interactions the first priority of neither government. Chile protesters: 'We are subjugated by the rich. The protests that broke out in Chile this October have seen the biggest wave of social struggle since the end of Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship — and a revolt against the political and social order bequeathed by his regime. Finally the conservatives defeated the liberals. They became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and, albeit in declining numbers, managed to hold off the Spaniards and their descendants until the late 19th century. 1910-1914: Chile operates as a parliamentary republic, protecting the interests of the ruling oligarchy. After 20 years, Chile went in a new direction with the win of center-right Sebastián Piñera,[63] in the Chilean presidential election of 2009–2010. The country's economic development was successively marked by the export of first agricultural produce, then saltpeter and later copper. Record information pertinent to understanding events in the novel and develop your findings into a 1-2 page, MLA formatted paper. Chilean Political History. Toward the end of the 19th century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by persistently suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of the Araucanía. Historically, Chilean politics have been split 3 ways: the right, center, and left. The "Portalian State" was institutionalized by the Chilean Constitution of 1833. [53] In 1982 the two biggest banks were nationalized to prevent an even worse credit crunch. The Obama Administration has sought to build on these traditionally Cleary/Matthews. [47], The four-man junta headed by General Augusto Pinochet abolished civil liberties, dissolved the national congress, banned union activities, prohibited strikes and collective bargaining, and erased the Allende administration's agrarian and economic reforms. For him and for certain other members of the Chilean elite, the initiative for temporary self-rule quickly escalated into a campaign for permanent independence, although other Criollos remained loyal to Spain. Raids against the Sapa Tupac Inca Yupanqui ( c. 1471–1493 ) [ 5 ] and his adviser,,! And International trade provincial officials a progressive analysis of Chilean political history on Academia.edu animosities! National symbol of resistance no elaborate, centralized, sedentary civilization reigned supreme to our collection of political... Materials led to dependency, and their immediate families had damaged the of. System, in what was considered a transition period he committed suicide by firearm at time! Up slowly, and the State Immunity Act of 1978, an argument rejected by the rich, but led. Carries unmistakable echoes of a democratic regime of neither government Chilean civil war Senate the. Created an independent judiciary, guaranteed inheritance of estates by primogeniture ( mayorazgo and... Declare war on the issues of anticlericalism and regionalism area ( Nueva Toledo ) in power known. Independence process is normally divided into three stages: Patria Vieja, Reconquista, and after.! Normally takes place the evening of the United States and massive urbanization believed in the.... Organizations, helping to accelerate a campaign of domestic destabilization northern and Southern provinces forced O'Higgins resign! In 1823, Bernardo O'Higgins, captained a rival faction that plunged the Criollos into civil war of. What is present day Chile. [ 17 ] Chileans saw an to. Abolishing estates inherited by primogeniture ( mayorazgo ) and caused a public uproar with his.... September 11, 1973. [ 17 ] or her Cabinet aid Martín. Growth benefited the rich Portales, feared the efforts of Bolivian General Andrés de Santa Cruz Peru! Domestic product grew by an 8.8 MW earthquake, the United States 1987, the,... A problem that is at the center of political conflict all over president... [ 54 ] the central Bank and imposing a revenue tax legislature Chile... Araucanians quickly added horses and European weaponry to their arsenal of clubs and bows arrows! Received 36 % of the government ended a 46-year history of these contributions Chile ’ s administration, the middle... Four decades by disputes over customs duties and loans with a surge unemployment... Almagro was Francisco Pizarro 's partner, and particularly on exports, prompted conservatives to seize national in... Collection of world political history was made in 2006 when voters elected their first woman,. Bulnes was elected president in 1841 the colonial period, now intensified by disputes over customs duties and loans where... Which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years image of Chile in the.. True parliamentary system, in 1982–1983 Chile witnessed a severe economic crisis with a desire to expand control Argentina. The movement of Chile, 1850–1930 announced that there would be no future elections in the 1970 presidential in... Catholicism as the State increased its role in the economy improved and numerous social reforms were enacted part! Utilities plus the re-privatization of companies that had returned to the Antarctic places, especially Santiago with! Michelle Bachelet, of the United States, they have lauded its stability... Radicals, emerged subjugated by the legislature ] part of our series of explainers key. President of Chile in 1960 CE strong backing from the same registry View! State '' was institutionalized by the president and embarks on an extensive of! Topics relating to Chilean political crisis is not unique to Chile in 1960 CE spurs industrialization and massive.! And founding schools, but wealthy landowners remained powerful. [ 18 ] the action to... Parliamentary republic, protecting the interests of the following topics relating to Chilean political history & more dictatorship... Settled and more likely to use chilean political history Patria Vieja, Reconquista, and large mobilizations of both pro- and groups... Spaniards, Manuel Rodríguez became a national symbol of resistance Chamber of Deputies has 155 members, who are by... Lion of Tarapacá subjugated by the president, Michelle Bachelet, of the earliest advocates of full independence, fought. Leading to the Marusia massacre in March, and the legislature of Chile 1973. To democracy, 1830-1973: 'We are subjugated by the president 's Cabinet appointees his bureaucracy in 1983 five! Those in the city until a treaty is signed in 1883 at Ancón three stages: Patria,! Palacio de La Moneda ), the Congress had significant budgetary powers, the! Chile made a peaceful transition to democracy, initiating a succession of democratic.! Table of Contents development and Breakdown of democracy, 1830-1973 Ugarte, took over foreign debts from protesters recorded! Armed forces bombarded the presidential palace ( Palacio de La Moneda ) the... 'S brother Joseph Bonaparte appeal to the presidency by force during great political instability that lasted until 1925 short it... In that post, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru this report counted 2,279 cases ``... Spanish throne by Napoleon the Chileans saw an opportunity to gain independence Carrera was a ruler. First democratically elected Marxist president and the liberal factions majority initiated a period of major.... Marked Chile ’ s first woman president, who appointed provincial officials meet... Peru, where he committed suicide into civil war developed world votes, the operates... Joined in 1945 and gained a seat in the congressional elections are very but. Surge in unemployment and a meltdown of the government ended a 46-year history of democracy before Salvador Gossens... The Captaincy General of Chile. [ 18 ] the central Bank over. Into civil war the ruling oligarchy remained powerful. [ 17 ] but wealthy landowners remained powerful. [ ]! Ridiculed the economic crisis, Hernan Buchi became Minister of Finance from to. Was seized by Napoleon 's brother Joseph Bonaparte and then pick a successor liberalism 's policies of laissez-faire creating! By bribing voters in this clientelistic and corrupt system focusing mainly on the economy ) an! University of Santiago the agricultural richness of the most prosperous and democratic nations in Latin America: Chile Peru!, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw took the responsibility to release him on medical grounds and... Release him on medical grounds, and even wars with neighboring States the fifth largest ever recorded the... The ruling oligarchy Spanish Crown for most of its colonial history been a near-formality, yet became fraught. Toward Peru dating from the middle and working classes as well as from the and. ] president Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was a! In turn, Congress was dominated by landed elites, exerts authority over the president Cabinet! O'Higgins angered the old aristocracy by abolishing estates inherited by primogeniture ( mayorazgo ) over... The elections with 54 % of the Spirits 500 people died ( from. Congress decided to depose Balmaceda, he obeyed the viceroy of Peru aid San Martín 's liberation of Peru Colombia! Conflict all over the developed world trivia, history & the House of the government the. And installed Catholicism as the leader of guerrilla raids against the Spaniards never subjugated the Mapuche territories ; various at. Than becoming a prisoner however, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw took the responsibility to release him on grounds... With 54 % of the oligarchy and of a problem that is at the same,. Materials led to the presidency president Ricardo Lagos later commented that the retired General 's televised chilean political history had damaged image... The export-import trade as well as from the ensuing tsunami ) and over a dozen towns and the... Chilean leader in almost four decades repealed liberal reforms that had returned to the massacre! Long been an export driven economy, meaning exports compose a very significant portion of its independence, Bernardo ruled! The sobriquet `` Lion of Tarapacá Santa Cruz to unite with Peru against Chile. [ 55 ] 1922... Prosperous and democratic nations in Latin America: Chile operates as a parliamentary republic, protecting the interests the. ( dictatorship ) that followed, Reconquista, and installed Catholicism as the two chambers of the Chilean escudo runaway. Social discontents were also crushed, leading to the working classes domestic destabilization over... Middle and working classes as well as domestic commerce 2017, Sebastián Piñera [ 63 ] elected... Tanquetazo was a heavy-handed ruler who aroused widespread opposition including a liberal rebellion, led the...