The situation was problematic for Sweden, since it once again faced both Denmark and Russia as potential enemies requiring the Swedes to split their forces. Other notable effects were the Swedish parliament's adoption of a new constitution and the establishment of the House of Bernadotte, the new Swedish royal house, in 1818. All material is correct and accurate at the time of publication, although the we do endeavour to ensure that material is updated periodically. The third force, commanded by Count Shuvalov, struck against Torneå and, braving fierce frost, encircled a Swedish army, which capitulated on 25 March. With the Royal Navy supporting the Swedish battle fleet there was little the Russian battle fleet could accomplish. These raids caused much confusion, and Russian responses to them thinned their strength along the coast. Odds were very much against the Swedes as the Russians had nearly one hundred coastal ships in the Finnish archipelago, against which Sweden could deploy only 7 galleys and 30 gun sloops. There is no artillery for the Swedes and they don't have a mounted officer available, so I checked their catalogue and found a couple of sets that were ripe for converting. The fortress had fallen into disrepair and lacked both adequate food and ammunition stores. In southern Finland, armies were to isolate the fortifications and first take control of the whole of southern Finland before advancing further to the north. Four days later, Bagration's corps of 17,000 men occupied the strategic Åland Islands, while Kulnev led a vanguard further across the frozen sea that on 19 March reached the Swedish shore within 70 km from Stockholm. The emperor refused to ratify the truce and replaced Buxhoeveden with a new commander-in-chief, Bogdan von Knorring, in December of that year. He was notified of the Russian invasion already on 21 February and since it was impossible to hold the predefined defence lines as the army had not yet fully assembled he ordered the army to assemble at Tavastehus (Finnish: Hämeenlinna). Failure to block the Russians led the king to relieve Cederström of his duties and replace him with Commander Henrik Johan Nauckhoff. The Russian advance was swift. After the Russian Emperor Alexander I concluded the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon, Alexander, in his letter on 24 September 1807 to the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf, informed the king that the peaceful relations between Russia and Sweden depended on Swedish agreement to abide by the limitations of the Treaty of Tilsit which in practice meant that Sweden would have been required to follow the Continental System. In the meantime, the Royal Navy attacked Copenhagen and the Anglo-Russian War (1807–1812) was declared. After a two-hour-long battle, the local militia, together with the Swedish landing force, overwhelmed their enemies and Colonel Vuich and his garrison were compelled to surrender. The surprised Russians garrisoned at Åbo reacted quickly, however, and deployed over 3,000 men to stop the landing force. Sweden then joined the Continental System and closed its harbours to British ships, leading to a formal declaration of war on Great Britain. Even the powerful explosion at Sveaborg which destroyed several of the captured ships did little to change Russian superiority in the Finnish archipelago. Back. Landings were further complicated by the Swedish Navy's failure to tightly block the coastal sea route past Hangö. Von Vegesack instead chose to land his force at the Lemo (Finnish: Lemu) manor house a few kilometers south of Åbo. Abandoned Swedish fortifications on the Hangö Peninsula (Finnish: Hanko) were taken and manned on 21 March and on the same day the Russian army took Åbo (Finnish: Turku) while a small detachment was sent to Åland. [24], In memory of the 200th anniversary of the Finnish War, all Swedish 1 krona coins minted during 2009 featured a stylised depiction of the sky and the sea on the reverse side, flanked by a quote by Anton Rosell: Den underbara sagan om ett land på andra sidan havet ("The wonderful story of a land on the other side of the sea"). The Finnish War (Swedish: Finska kriget, Russian: Финляндская война, Finnish: Suomen sota) was fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809. In the north, the situation was more complicated. Even the wells were found to be unusable. While none of the fights ended with a decisive winner, the overall strategic victory went to Russia, who gained advantage in the Finnish archipelago by managing to link up their separate coastal units. The fortress surrendered on 6 May 1808 after prolonged negotiations with the Russians as the commanding officer Carl Olof Cronstedt and his council believed that resistance was futile. The last of the Russian ships of the line was disabled and then captured and burned by the British ships. After the Russian Emperor Alexander I concluded the 1807 Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon, Alexander, in his letter on 24 September 1807 to the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf, informed the king that the peaceful relations between Russia and Sweden depended on Swedish agreement to abide by the limitations of the Treaty of Tilsit which in practice meant that Sweden would have been required to follow the Continental System. A Russian battle fleet under Admiral Pyotr Khanikov (also Chanikoff) sortied in late July to clear the Swedish blockades in the archipelago, to cut contact between Åland and Sweden, and to stop Swedish supply transports sailing in the Gulf of Bothnia. In August, Charles XIII, anxious to improve his position at a peace settlement, ordered General Gustav Wachtmeister to land in the north of Sweden and to attack Kamensky’s rear. If you have any queries regarding material, then please contact us using the contact form. Material presented throughout this website is derived from publicly-available information (e.g. Swedish attempts to land troops and artillery in support of the gunboats at Vestankärr on 2 August ended in failure, though the attempt came very close to capturing General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. They met the Russians first at Tallholmen on 21 July and again on 02 August in the Battle of Sandöström. Imgur: The magic of the Internet. Please see the category guidelines for more information. When news of Kulnev’s incursion spread to the Swedish capital, the new king sent an embassy to Knorring, proposing a truce. Russia had gathered a wealth of information from Finland using spies and other sources. Pikeman's Lament - Finnish War battles of Pyhäjoki 1808 There has been quite a lot of talking about running a campaign of Finnish War 1808 -09. Due to bad weather and poor visibility the fleet under Admiral Rudolph Cederström chose to stay relatively far from the coast. A third unit was to advance into Sweden by land, going around the gulf and through the town of Torneå (Finnish: Tornio). The Russians had advanced considerably but they had also gained the long and vulnerable coastline with it. Under the terms of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn, which ended the 1808-09 Finnish War … The Swedish advance was very slow however, as operations were often halted due to the thaw. Most of the fortifications in Finland had not been completed and those that were completed had mostly fallen into neglect and disrepair. The fortress surrendered to the Russians on 18 March after a siege that had lasted roughly a month, with just one man having been wounded in action. After the Russians were driven from Central Finland, their forces stretched along the line of Pori – Tampere – Mikkeli. Quite interesting and eventful period of Finnish war history. Three days later, Buxhoeveden — pressed by the early onset of winter weather — signed an armistice, much to the dismay of Alexander I. Захаров Г., Русско-шведская война 1808-1809, М., 1940. They met the Russians first at Tallholmen on 21 July and again on 2 August in the Battle of Sandöström. The motivation behind the reforms were to make the Swedish state more effective and functional, and thus protect against the existential threat in the East. The first occurred on 03 July with several others taking place soon after. [7] The king was quite unprepared for the attack, especially as war was not declared until April. By the morning of 20 June, the Swedish forces were forced to withdraw. Start Routes Cycling route "Finnish War 1808 in Kälviä", Kokkola. [13], The advance of the Russian coastal squadron beyond Hangö created difficulties for the Swedes. The lost land … After a meager Russian bombardment, Gripenberg agreed to negotiations on 10 March. This sunday, the Swedish major Gustav Arnkihl, of the Nyland dragoons - who was posted at the border - signed a report to the brigade command. [15], Sweden performed several small landings along the coast near Kristinestad (Finnish: Kristiinankaupunki) and Kaskö (Finnish: Kaskinen) and managed to raise local men to oppose the Russians. Kamensky's 11,000-strong corps achieved important victories at Kuortane (1 September) and Salmi (2 September), and although Georg Carl von Döbeln won the Battle of Jutas for Sweden on 13 September, Kamensky gained the most important victory at Oravais on 14 September. However, owing to bad weather, only a portion of the troops that had been intended to participate in the landing actually reached the Finnish coast, and this resulted in another withdrawal on 28 September. Date: 20 September 2008 (original upload date) Source: Tracé des côtes et des frontières : World Data Base II, corrigé sur la côte occidentale du golfe de Botnie et pour le lac Saimaa par le tracé issu du GSHHS. Swedish attempts to land troops and artillery in support of the gunboats at Vestankärr on 02 August ended in failure, though the attempt came very close to capturing General Friedrich Wilhelm von Buxhoeveden. On 14 August, Count Nikolay Kamensky decided to use this numerical superiority to launch a new offensive. Per altri usi, vedere finlandese Guerra (disambigua). About 21,000 Swedish troops were stationed in various fortresses in Finland, while the rest of his army was unable to leave southern Sweden for fear of Danish attack. The Russian commander agreed and speedily recalled Kulnev back to Åland. In southern Finland, armies were to isolate the fortifications and first take control of the whole of southern Finland before advancing further to the north. Swedish landings were invariably made with poorly equipped and trained forces, often with troops who had very low morale. Sweden then joined the Continental System and closed its harbours to British ships, leading to a formal declaration of war on Great Britain. Meanwhile, the other Russian contingent — 5,000 men under Barclay de Tolly — endured great hardship in crossing the frozen gulf further north; they entered Umeå on 24 March. Release Calendar DVD & Blu-ray Releases Top Rated Movies Most Popular Movies Browse Movies by Genre Top Box Office Showtimes & Tickets Showtimes & Tickets In Theaters Coming Soon Coming Soon Movie News India Movie Spotlight. Before the engagement started Klingspor finally arrived on 2 March and assumed command. This is a chronology of battles and events of the Finnish War (1808–1809). The Russians, however, were able to send reinforcements to the area which were, in addition to being numerically superior, both far better trained and equipped than the peasants and militia the Swedes had raised. After starting the siege on 21 February, the Russians issued a surrender demand for the fort, but this was refused by the Swedes. Although most Swedish officers were skeptical about their chances in fighting the larger and more experienced Russian army, Gustav Adolf had an unrealistic view of Sweden's ability to defend itself against Russia. On 26 May, a British fleet carrying 14,000 troops under Sir John Moore entered the port of Gothenburg. Finnish War (1808-1809), aftermathPin link / Albums/ Maps/ Source Source Even the strongest of the Swedish fortresses, Sveaborg, still had several of its planned fortifications missing, most notably all the land side fortifications designed to protect against a besieging enemy. The Royal Navy captured 35 Russian ships and burnt 20 others before leaving the Baltic Sea on 28 September 1809. Oct 6, 2017 - Finnish War 21 February 1808 – 17 September 1809 He was to lead a force of 2,600 men, land somewhere between Nystad (Finnish: Uusikaupunki) and Åbo, and then capture the latter. Without declaring war on Sweden, Russian troops crossed the border to Finland on February 21, 1808. Having received considerable reinforcements, their numbers increased to 55,000, as operations were often halted due the... 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